Solar Neutrinos: Results and Challenges
Seven beautiful experiments (Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX, SAGE, GNO, Superkamiokande, and SNO) have detected solar neutrinos, which have approximately the fluxes and energies predicted by calculations of nuclear fusion rates in standard solar models. These experiments settle empirically the debate initiated in the 19th century on how the sun shines. Quantitative discrepancies between the solar neutrino measurements and the standard model predictions, which assume the accuracy of the standard solar model calculations and that nothing happens to the neutrinos after they are created, provide evidence that physics beyond the minimal standard electroweak model is manifested in solar neutrino experiments. Helioseismological measurements strengthen this inference.
The speaker will summarize the current status of solar neutrino research and review the prospects for discriminating between different neutrino oscillation scenarios with the SNO, KAMLAND, BOREXINO, and ICARUS experiments.