The Supply Chain of CO2
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford
CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e. where the fuels are burned). However, production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and which may be used to produce goods or services for consumption elsewhere. Along the supply chain of global CO2 emissions, 10.2 billion tonnes (Gt) of CO2, or 37% of global emissions, are from fossil fuels that have been traded internationally, and an additional 6.4 Gt CO2, or 23% of global emissions, are embodied in goods and services traded internationally. The detailed model results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy.